Today there is talk of war everywhere. Everyone
fears a war breaking out between the two countries. If that happens
it will be a calamity both for India and for Pakistan. India has
written to the U.N. because whenever there is a fear of conflict
anywhere the U.N. is asked to promote a settlement and to stop fighting
from breaking out. India therefore wrote to the U. N. O. however
trivial the issue may appear to be, it could lead to a war between
the two countries. It is a long memorandum and it has been cabled.
Pakistan’s leaders Zafrullah Khan and Liaquat Ali Khan have since
issued long statements. I would take leave to say that their argument
does not appeal to me. You may ask if I approve of the Union Government
approaching the UNO I may say that I both approve and do not approve
of what they did. I approve of it, because after all what else are
they to do? They are convinced that what they are doing is right.
If there are raids from outside the frontier of Kashmir, the obvious
conclusion is that it must be with the connivance of Pakistan. Pakistan
can deny it. But the denial does not settle the matter. Kashmir
has acceded the accession upon certain conditions.
If Pakistan harasses Kashmir and if Sheikh Abdullah
who is the leader of Kashmir asks the Indian Union for help, the
latter is bound to send help. Such help therefore was sent to Kashmir.
At the same time Pakistan is being requested to get out of Kashmir
and to arrive at a settlement with India over the question through
bilateral negotiations. If no settlement can be reached in this
way then a war is inevitable. It is to avoid the possibility of
war that the Union Government has taken the step it did. Whether
they are right in doing so or not God alone knows. Whatever might
have been the attitude of Pakistan, if I had my way I would have
invited Pakistan’s representatives to India and we could have met,
discussed the matter and worked out some settlement. They keep saying
that they want an amicable settlement but they do nothing to create
the conditions for such a settlement. I shall therefore humbly say
to the responsible leaders of Pakistan that though we are now two
countries – which is a thing I never wanted – we should at least
try to arrive at an agreement so that we could live as peaceful
neighbors. Let us grant for the sake of argument that all Indians
are bad, but Pakistan at least is a new-born nation which has more
ever come into being in the name of religion and it should at least
keep itself clean. But they themselves make no such claim. It is
not their argument that Muslims have committed no atrocities in
I shall therefore suggest that it is now their
duty, as far as possible, to arrive at an amicable understanding
with India and live in harmony with her. Mistakes were made on both
sides. Of this o have no doubt. But this does not mean that we should
persist in those mistakes, for then in the end we shall only destroy
ourselves in a war and the whole of the sub-continent will pass
into the hands of some third power. That will be the worst imaginable
fate for us. I shudder to think of it. Therefore the two Dominions
should come together with God as witness and find a settlement.
The matter is now before the UNO. It cannot be withdrawn from there.
But if India and Pakistan come to a settlement the big powers in
the UNO will have to endorse that settlement. They will not object
to the settlement. They themselves can only say that they will do
their best to see that the two countries arrive at an understanding
through mutual discussions. Let us pray to God is to grant that
we may either learn to live in amity with each other or if we must
light to let us fight to the very end. That may be folly but sooner
or later it will purify us. Now a few words about Delhi. I came
to know of the incidents which took place last evening through Brijkishan.
I had gone to the Camp for the evening prayer. I came away after
the prayer but he had stayed over to talk to the people in the Camp.
There are some Muslim houses at as little distance from the Camp.
About four or five hundred inmates of the Camp mostly women and
children but also some men – issued out of the Camp to take possession
of the houses. I am told they did not indulge in any kind of violence.
Some of the houses were vacant. Some were occupied by the owners.
They tried to take possession even of the latter. The police were
near at hand. They immediately went to the spot and brought the
situation under control at about 9 O’ clock according to the information
I have. The police have stayed on there. I understand they had to
use tear gas. Tear gas does not kill but it can be pretty painful.
I am told that something has happened today again.
I can say is that is a matter of great shame for us. Have not the
refugees learnt even from their immense suffering that they have
to exercise some restraint? It is highly improper to go and occupy
other people’s houses. It is for the Government to find them shelter
or whatever else their need. Today the Government is our own. But
if we defy our own Government and defy the police and forcibly occupy
houses the Government is not likely to continue for long. It is
still worse that such things should happen in the capital city of
India where there are so many ambassadors from all over the world.
Do we want to show them the spectacle of people occupying what-ever
they can? It is all the more regrettable that women and children
were used as a shield. It is inhuman. It is like Muslim rulers keeping
a herd of cows in the vanguard of their armies to make sure that
the Hindus would not fight. It is uncivilized, barbaric behavior.
It is still more barbaric to put women and children in front to
provide against the police making a lathi charge. It is abuse of
womanhood. I must humbly ask all the refugees - women and children
– not to behave in this way. Let them settle down. If they don’t,
then apart from a war between Indian and Pakistan, we may kill ourselves
in mutual strife. We may lose Delhi and make ourselves the laughing-stock
of the world. If we want to keep India a free country, we must stop
the things that are at present going on.
Note: This was a speech made on January 4th, 1948,
and reprinted in Gandhi’s Collected works, vol.90, pp. 356-58. Since
their respective existence as independent nations, Indian and Pakistan
has fought three wars over Kashmir, or that part of Kashmir, which
is under India’s control. For a brilliant modern piece on this conflict,
we recommend Mishra’s “Murder
in India.” While you’re
at it, you might
want to read Naipual’s “A
Million Mutinies” in the Naipaul Page.]<<<